The Law No. 2007 on Arts and Services Allocated to Turkish Citizens in Turkey, which entered into force in 1932, stated the professions that are prohibited to foreigners.
According to Article 1 of the Law; Photography, barber, watchman, janitor, stock market brokerage and brokerage, sales of state-owned substances, guiding, chauffeur, veterinary medicine and chemist professions are prohibited to foreigners.
The field of health is one of the fields with the highest number of prohibited occupations. The most important regulation regarding the professions reserved for Turkish citizens in this field is the Law No. 1219 on the Practice of Medicine and Medical Arts. The law introduced the condition of Turkish citizenship in order to practice the profession of doctor. With a decree enacted in 2011 by amending the 1st article of the law, medicine was removed from the professions forbidden to foreigners.
With the same degree, the Nursing Law No. 6283 was amended and the condition of being Turkish was abolished for nurses. In line with this change in law, the regulation regulating the working conditions of foreign healthcare professionals was enacted the following year. As stipulated in other articles of the Law No. 1219, the condition of being Turkish continues for the professions of dentistry, midwifery and nursing.
Similarly, it is regulated in the Law No. 6197 on pharmacists and the Law on veterinary medicine that being a Turkish citizen is a must in order to practice pharmacy and veterinary medicine in Turkey. However, the trend is that these professions will no longer be prohibited to foreigners. KFIK numbered 663 also regulates that foreign specialists can be employed in health institutions. On the other hand, in accordance with the Private Hospitals Law, the requirement to be a Turkish citizen continues to be the responsible director in private hospitals.
In terms of qualified professions operating on Turkish ships and waters, the maritime field is generally unique to Turks.
Only a few years after the establishment of the Republic, the Cabotage Law, as an indicator of independence and sovereignty, was based on the work of Turkish citizens on the Turkish coasts.
According to the Turkish International Ship Registry Law, on ships and yachts registered as Turkish, the captain must be Turkish.
According to the Cabotage Law, carrying passengers on the coasts, carrying out port works and piloting are reserved for Turkish citizens. In addition, fish, oysters, mussels, sponges, pearls, as mentioned in other articles in the law. coral etc. Exporting, diving and foraging, piloting, engineering, clerk and crew are also prohibited to foreigners.
It can be said that the field of justice is almost completely closed to foreigners in terms of employment.
Apart from the judges and prosecutor’s office professionals and other auxiliary personnel who are public servants, notaries and lawyers who can work independently must also be Turkish citizens.
It is necessary to be a Turkish citizen in order to be accepted to the notary public internship according to the Notary Law and to be admitted to the attorneyship law according to the Attorneyship Law. Similarly. According to the Customs Law, the customs consultant and assistant must be Turkish.
Finally, in accordance with the law on the security of public institutions, only Turks can work as security guards in private or public institutions.
In summary, as of 2021, the professions that are prohibited to foreigners are:
- Dentistry, midwifery and nursing
- Veterinary Medicine
- Responsible directorate in private hospitals
- Within the territorial waters, captaincy, fish, oyster, mussel, sponge, pearl, coral etc. export, diving, foraging, piloting, engineering, clerk, crew
- Notary public
- Customs brokerage
- Security officer in private or public institutions
Foreigners of Turkish origin are an exception to the rule of professions that are prohibited for foreigners in Turkey.
It should be noted here that foreigners of Turkish origin were not exempted from work permits, they were only exempted from the evaluation criteria. Foreigners of Turkish origin can work by obtaining a work permit. In addition, they will be able to freely do the professions that are prohibited to foreigners. It should be noted that the amendments made regarding the work of foreigners of Turkish origin and the Law No. 4817 and the relevant legislation do not contain any provisions regarding the professions prohibited to foreigners.
Although it is free for foreigners, separate, complicating rules regarding the professions to be performed in Turkey are valid for engineers and architects.
According to the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects Law; In order to practice engineering and architecture professions in Turkey, it is obligatory to register with a specialized chamber, and foreign engineers are required to obtain a work permit issued by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security by taking the opinions of the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement (now the Ministry of Environment and Urbanization) and the Union of Chambers (TOBB). and if they stay in Turkey for more than one month, they must register as a temporary member in the chamber closest to their specialization. In addition, work permits may be granted for engineering or architectural works undertaken by foreign contractors or foreign organizations against State offices, public and private organizations and individuals in Turkey ex officio or jointly with local organizations, provided that it remains exclusively for this work.
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