Göbeklitepe, the work of a great organization and imagination, constitutes the zero point of history in many ways, beyond the oldest monuments and firsts of this size. In a period when man was living as a hunter-gatherer, the construction of temples that required advanced architecture caused astonishment all over the world. The temples that reflect the belief world of prehistoric people and enriched with animist figures made Göbeklitepe one of the most important discoveries in the history of archeology. This important place is located 22 km. distance to the Şanlıurfa city center. The real value of the area started to be revealed with the excavations started after 1994. After these studies, it was understood that Göbeklitepe was a cult center dating back 12000 years.
Göbeklitepe belongs to the Neolithic period. Göbeklitepe is the center of the first belief as it is very important for the first temple in the world. Researchers identify 20 temples at this location, and only 6 temples are revealed. Göbeklitepe is much older and older than all known structures and temples. The oldest known temple until the discovery of Göbeklitepe was located in Malta and was 5000 years old. In addition, Göbeklitepe was built 7000 years earlier than Stonehenge in England and 7500 years earlier than Egypt’s oldest Egyptian Pyramids. When Göbeklitepe was founded, people lived in small groups, gathered plants and hunted animals. How they carried large columns and heavy stones from the rocky areas; How they brought them to this region without a 2-kilometer wheelbarrow and pack animal and how they built these temples to Göbeklitepe remains a mystery even today.
The History of Göbeklitepe
Göbeklitepe, on the one hand, provides to question all the researches and known facts about the history of humanity, on the other hand, it reveals the need to rewrite the established understanding of history and the history of religions. So, the history begins here. It is thought that Göbeklitepe was built 7,500 years before the Egyptian pyramids. Other signs on the ruins, with symbols of settled life and the first traces of wheat, reveal important information about that period. The icons, drawings, stones, sculptures and three-dimensional carvings discovered during the excavations succeed in attracting the attention of many world-renowned archaeologists. Every development and every new symbol found in the excavations that lasted for many years has a great repercussion both in the world archeology world and in scientific journals.
How was Göbeklitepe discovered?
The region, which attracted attention when a farmer plowing his field in 1983 notified the authorities about the carved stone found under the ground, the value of the findings becomes clear at a later time, as the region was not considered very important at that time. Although the excavations initiated by the Şanlıurfa Museum Directorate in 1995 were initially perceived as ordinary excavations, the important findings discovered over time are enough to change what is known about human history.
The reliefs on the stones are still clearly visible, thanks to the fact that the works in the Göbeklitepe temple, which is thought to have been built in the Neolithic period, spread over a wide area and are very well preserved. The region called Mesopotamia is regarded as a critical and important point as it has witnessed the birth and collapse of many civilizations throughout history.
Importance of Göbeklitepe
- The area unearthed so far in the excavation area shows that none of the buildings are houses, but rather an area established for monumental purposes.
- Apart from the architectural finds, the most visible find is stone tools. Almost all of these are tools made of flint.
- When people haven’t yet farmed, tamed animals, and discovered animals; the carving of human figures on the obelisks in Göbeklitepe and the symbolic expression style shown in the pictures and reliefs are quite remarkable. This situation shows that people had an aesthetic understanding and high consciousness at that time.
- The mountain ranges that separate Toros Mountains, Karacadağ foothills, Şanlıurfa Plateau and Euphrates Plain from each other can be seen from the region where it is located.
- In line with the researches and findings obtained in the region, it was revealed that the ancestor of wheat, which is an important cultivated plant and has hundreds of genetic variations, was first grown on the hills of Göbeklitepe.
How to Get to Göbeklitepe?
Göbeklitepe, which affects the history of religions and is accepted as the first known worship center, is located near Örencik Village in Şanlıurfa. The temple, which is about 20 km from the center of Sanliurfa, is located in the northeast of the city. Visitors show great interest to the historical place, which can be accessed by taxi or minibus. You can also use Şanlıurfa GAP Airport to visit Göbeklitepe, you will find direct flights from Ankara and Istanbul to Şanlıurfa.