Erzurum City Guide

Erzurum City Guide

Erzurum is the third largest city in the Eastern Anatolia Region in terms of population. Erzurum has been a settlement since the early periods of history. The city is also known for its historical monuments and winter sports facilities. It is the fourth largest city in the country in terms of surface area. The main source of income in Erzurum is agriculture and animal husbandry. Due to its cold climate, its industry has not developed. Erzurum is one of the highest and coldest cities in Turkey. Otherwise, Erzurum is one of the most important trade centers of Turkey and Eastern Anatolia.

On the other hand, Erzurum is a touristic center that attracts attention with many places to visit like Palandöken Ski Center. Erzurum is also a historical city has been hosted of many civilizations from Urartians. There are many historical places to visit in the city like mosques, museums and castles. If we look at the education perspective, Erzurum has one of the oldest and most popular university of the country like Atatürk University. It is possible to reach Erzurum by road, railway and airline. However, Erzurum is the important attraction point for tourism, animal husbandry and real estate investments. Check out the most comprehensive Erzurum city guide now. You will find the answers of many questions like “Places to see in Erzurum” or “How to get to Erzurum?” in this guide.

City Name



Population Density

Population Growth Rate

Surface Area

Number of Districts

Postal Code

Area Code

GDP (Per Capita)


Eastern Anatolia


30 / km2

-0,75 %

25.355 km2




26.900 ₺

There are important districts in Erzurum like Yakutiye, Palandöken and Aziziye in terms of being metropolitan districts. These three districts have almost half million population. These districts are also among the most popular districts of Erzurum. Places to visit in Erzurum is generally within the boundaries of these districts. Especially, Palandöken is one of the most popular winter sports center in Turkey. Horasan is also has an important feature for Erzurum. Yakutiye, Oltu and Aziziye has important industrial zones of the city.

The districts of Erzurum are Aşkale, Aziziye, Çat, Hınıs, Horasan, İspir, Karaçoban, Karayazı, Köprüköy, Narman, Oltu, Olur, Palandöken, Pasinler, Pazaryolu, Şenkaya, Tekman, Tortum, Uzundere and Yakutiye. You will find detailed information for all districts of Erzurum in this guide.

Short History of Erzurum

In addition to being suitable and favorable for its natural conditions and geographical location, its proximity to the places known as important civilization and civilization center has made Erzurum one of the oldest settlements in Anatolia. Some stone tools found as a result of excavations carried out to date lead the history of the settlement in Erzurum and its region to the chipped stone age. In addition, the finds of Karaz, Pulur, Güzelova Höyük and Sos Höyük show that Erzurum was the center of Karaz Culture during the Early Bronze Age. Erzurum has hosted many civilizations from prehistoric times to today. The history of Erzurum dates back to 4000 BC. Urartu, Cimmerians, Scythians, Hittites, Medes, Persians, Romans, Byzantines, Sassanids, Umayyad, Seljuks, Mongols, Ilkhanate, Safavids, Ottomans and the Republic of Turkey has retained control of the city territory.

Erzurum developed very much as a center of state during the Ottoman Empire. In addition, Erzurum became a military base during the Ottoman campaigns to Iran. In the following period, Erzurum was invaded by the Russians three times in 1828, 1878 and 1916. Turkish Army 15th Corps Commander Kâzım Karabekir was victorious as a result of the battle with Armenian gangs in Erzurum and saved Erzurum from occupation on March 12, 1918. The Turkish War of Independence was actually and legally initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his fellow soldiers with the decisions taken at the Erzurum Congress.

Accommodation in Erzurum is an important issue for people who visit city for different purposes like tourism or business. In Erzurum, close to the city center, it is possible to find hotels in all-inclusive concept and accommodation options that serve in bed and breakfast, half board and room concepts only. You can stay in Erzurum hotels suitable for the needs of visitors coming to Malatya for business and tourism purposes. If you want to get away from the city center to ski resorts of Erzurum, you can visit ski center and choose the boutique hotels in Palandöken. You can find a lot of accommodation alternatives in Erzurum. There are world-famous hotel chain like Dedeman.

Continental climate is seen in Erzurum. The city is one of Turkey’s highest and coldest cities. Winters are very cold and snowy, summers are very hot and dry. Erzurum is covered with snow 150 days a year. Annual average temperature about 5,6 ºC in the city. The best time to visit Erzurum is from December to May. Find the best hotels in Erzurum in our guide easily.

If you are looking for real estate for sale in Erzurum or real estate for rent in Erzurum, you are on the right page. The prices of houses for sale in Erzurum have increased by 9.77% in the last year. The average residential area is 160 square meters. The depreciation period of the houses for sale is around 19 years. The districts that gained the most value in Erzurum province were Oltu, Yakutiye, Aziziye, Palandöken, Aşkale respectively. On the other hand, the districts with the fastest return in Erzurum province were Horasan, Aşkale, Pasinler, Yakutiye, Palandöken. Since affordable and luxurious sites are built in these regions, it is preferred by those who want to invest. You can make the most correct investment by examining our ads for apartment options for sale from Erzurum real estate agent. You can also add your listings easily if you are selling or renting a house in different districts of Erzurum.

Do you want to get detailed information about hospitals in Erzurum? If you’re, our special health guide will be helpful for you. In Erzurum, there are 1 city hospital, 14 state hospitals, 1 university hospital and private hospitals. Almost all districts have hospitals in different regions of the city. You can get high-quality health services in many health instutitions in Erzurum. Especially, Erzurum State Hospital is the full-fledged hospital of the city with its high capacity.

If we look at the general perspective to Erzurum, the city is located in Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.  You can reach Erzurum by air, railway and road transportation. Erzurum Airport is located 13 kilometers away from the city center. You can come to the city center by using airport public bus services from the Erzurum Airport to different regions of the city. If you want to come to Erzurum by bus, there are bus services from many cities to Erzurum.

Road Transportation

For the road transportation concept, Erzurum has many connections. Because the city is at the intersection of the highway transportation network in the east – west and north – south directions. You can visit Erzurum by D-950, D-957, E-80, E-97 and some other roads from Bayburt, Kars, Bingöl and Muş. Erzurum Intercity Bus Station is the main bus station of Erzurum and it’s located in Yakutiye district. You can find direct lines from many cities of Turkey to Erzurum.

Air Transportation

Erzurum Airport is the main airport in Erzurum and this is located in Aziziye district. It takes about 13 km from Erzurum Airport to the city center, so you can use public bus shuttle to reach city center from the airport. You can find connecting international flight from Erzurum to many countries and cities of the world. Also, you can fly to many domestic cities of Turkey from Erzurum Airport.

Railway Transportation

For the concept of railway transportation, it is possible to reach Erzurum by Eastern Express, departing from Ankara. You can go to Erzurum by using this line from cities such as Kayseri, Sivas, Erzincan and Kars. Doğu Express is preferred by touristic purposes generally.

Inner-city Transportation

There are public transportation alternatives such as public buses and minibuses in Erzurum. You can use all of the districts of the city by public transportation.

You will find the answers of the “Best places to visit in Erzurum” or “Top 10 things to do and see in Erzurum” questions in this guide. Choose your destination, click on the guide and start discovering Erzurum deeply now. The city has a lot of places to visit. Erzurum has a long history. While traveling in this city, you will have a pleasant journey in the history of Anatolia. Erzurum is also one of the oldest settlements in Anatolia. There are many natural beauties in the city that you will discover next to the historical places. If you want to learn the history of Erzurum, you can go to museums in Erzurum. Erzurum Archeology MuseumErzurum Atatürk HouseYakutiye Madrasa (Turkish Islamic Arts and Ethnography Museum) are museums that we recommend you to see in Erzurum. Especially Yakutiye Madrasa is worth seeing because it is a very old historical building. Erzurum has hosted many civilizations throughout history. For this reason, there are dozens of historical buildings in the city. Erzurum CastleThree VaultsDouble Minaret MadrasaÇobandede BridgeRüstempaşa BedestenErzurum Clock Tower (Tepsi Minaret), Lalapaşa MosqueErzurum Ulu MosqueErzurum Murat Paşa Mosqueİbrahim Paşa MosqueDerviş Ağa MosqueÖşvank ChurchCimcime Sultan Tomb are some of them. Among the natural beauties you should visit in Erzurum are Narman Fairy ChimneysNene Hatun National ParkTortum LakeTortum Waterfall and Çoruh River. Erzurum also hosts Palandöken Ski Center, one of the most important centers of winter sports in our country. During the winter months, thousands of ski lovers come to Palandöken and have a pleasant winter holiday. On the other hand, travelers who want to rest and find healing may prefer Pasinler Spa and Erzurum Spa which are the most popular spa centers of the city. For more, check out our guide now!

There are 2 state university in Erzurum named as Atatürk University and Erzurum Technical University Especially, Atatürk University is one of the oldest and most popular universities in Turkey. Find the best university in our guide below.


Enes Sahin

Hello, I am Enes, I write content for Expat Guide Turkey every day. Don't forget to check it out! You can contact me via e-mail

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